boycotted, boycotting, boycotts
1.To act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion.
2.To abstain from or unite with others in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with.
The act or an instance of boycotting.
[After Charles C. Boycott
(1832-1897), English land agent in Ireland.]
- boy´cott´er noun
Word History: Charles C. Boycott seems to have been forced by his strong sense of duty into becoming a household word. Boycott was the estate agent of the Earl of Erne in County Mayo, Ireland. The earl was one of the absentee landowners who as a group held most of the land in Ireland. Boycott was chosen in the fall of 1880 to be the test case for a new policy advocated by Charles Parnell, an Irish politician who wanted land reform. Any landlord who would not charge lower rents or any tenant who took over the farm of an evicted tenant would be given the complete cold shoulder by Parnell's supporters. Boycott, a former British soldier, refused to charge lower rents and ejected his tenants. At this point members of Parnell's Irish Land League stepped in, and Boycott and his family found themselves isolated- without servants, farmhands, service in stores, or mail delivery. Boycott's name was quickly adopted as the term for this treatment, not just in English but in other languages such as French, Dutch, German, and Russian.
Boycott, refusal of a group to trade or associate with another group, an individual, an organization, or a nation. The most frequent use of the boycott is in labor disputes. It has also been used as a weapon in consumer affairs, social problems, personal relations, and international affairs. When a boycott is instituted against an employer by a stoppage or slowdown of work by employees, it is called a strike. The term boycott first appeared in the late 19th century, after Irish tenants objected to the oppressive rent-collection policies of a British land agent, Captain Charles Boycott. The angry tenants refused to work the lands and isolated Boycott both economically and socially.
Civil Rights Movement in the United States
Civil Rights Movement in the United States, struggle by black Americans to gain full citizenship rights and achieve racial equality. Individuals and organizations challenged discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws. Many believe that the movement began with the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955 and ended with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, though some argue that it has not ended yet.
The civil rights movement challenged segregation, the attempt by whites to separate the races. By 1877 the Democratic Party had gained control of government in the South and began to pass laws segregating blacks and whites. Other laws denied voting rights to blacks by imposing educational and financial restrictions.
Conditions for blacks in Northern states were somewhat better. Segregated facilities were not as common, and blacks were usually free to vote. However, economic discrimination against blacks was intense; the better jobs almost invariably went to whites.
Early Black Resistance to Segregation
In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that "separate but equal" accommodations were constitutional. This doctrine provided constitutional protection for segregation for the next 50 years. To protest segregation, blacks created national organizations, among them the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909. NAACP lawyers began to challenge segregation and discrimination in courts.
During World War I (1914-1918) blacks in the military were segregated from whites. At home, blacks became increasingly urbanized; hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks migrated northward, seeking jobs in Northern cities. In the North, black communities with a strong political presence developed. In the 1930s black protests against discrimination increased, encouraged by new federal programs designed to insure social welfare.
During World War II (1939-1945) all the armed services moved toward equal treatment of blacks, although none flatly rejected segregation. Hundreds of thousands of blacks left Southern farms for war jobs in Northern and Western cities, where they enjoyed larger incomes. After the war, they used their economic and political influence to support civil rights for Southern blacks. Having fought racism abroad, black veterans returned home with greater determination to win civil rights and were supported by many white Americans. In 1948 President Harry Truman ordered the final desegregation of the armed forces.
In the postwar years, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, led by lawyer Thurgood Marshall, focused on achieving educational equality. In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court held in Brown v. Board of Education that racially segregated education was unconstitutional. Southern white opposition to the ruling was intense. In 1957 in Little Rock, Arkansas, Governor Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to admit nine black students to Central High School. President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation. As desegregation progressed, membership increased in the Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacist organization that employed intimidation and violence.
In 1955 Rosa Parks, a black resident of Montgomery, Alabama, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white person on a city bus. Montgomery's black community staged a boycott of city buses, culminating in 1956 in a federal court order for Montgomery's buses to desegregate. The young minister Martin Luther King, Jr., an organizer of the boycott, became a national figure. When the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was founded in 1957, King became its president. The SCLC encouraged the use of nonviolent protest.
In 1960 four black college students in North Carolina sat at "white-only" lunch counters, sparking a wave of sit-ins across the South. Many restaurants were desegregated as a result. Later that year the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded.
In 1961 civil rights organizers staged the Freedom Rides, in which blacks and whites traveled around the South in buses to test the effectiveness of a Supreme Court decision declaring segregation illegal in bus stations open to interstate travel. When the Freedom Riders reached Alabama, violence erupted, and President John F. Kennedy interceded to protect them.
In the early 1960s the SCLC organized a series of protest campaigns in Southern cities, sponsoring demonstrations of thousands of protesters. In 1963 the SCLC staged antisegregation marches in Birmingham, Alabama. Police attacked demonstrators with dogs, and firefighters turned high-pressure water hoses on them. Television broadcasts of the violence shocked the nation, increasing support for civil rights.
In 1963 national civil rights leaders staged a March on Washington at which Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech to an audience of more than 200,000. After the march, President Kennedy proposed a new civil rights law. The following year, President Lyndon Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. The act prohibited segregation in public accommodations and discrimination in education and employment.
In 1961 white supremacists reacted violently when SNCC and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organized voter registration campaigns in Southern states. In 1964 SNCC recruited Northern blacks and whites to help register voters in Mississippi. The project received national attention when three participants- one black and two white- were murdered.
At a SNCC protest in 1965 in Selma, Alabama, police beat and tear-gassed marchers. Televised scenes of the event shocked many Americans and created broad support for a law to protect Southern blacks' right to vote. President Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, suspending the use of restrictive voter qualification tests.
After 1965 the focus of the civil rights movement began to change. Martin Luther King, Jr., focused on poverty and racial inequality in the North. Younger activists criticized his interracial strategy and appeals to moral idealism. In 1968 King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. The main opponent of King's policies was SNCC, led by Stokely Carmichael. Carmichael popularized the term Black Power, a philosophy emphasizing black separatism and influenced by the ideas of Malcom X. What had been a national consensus for civil rights began to deteriorate. In 1968 the Black Panther Party emerged, advocating violence to achieve its goals.
End of the Civil Rights Movement
For many, the civil rights movement ended with the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. Some argue that the movement is not yet over because the goal of full equality has not been achieved. Racial problems still existed after 1968, and urban poverty among blacks represented a worsening problem. Beginning in the 1970s children were bused outside their school districts to desegregate schools, and new affirmative action programs attempted to address the question of equal opportunity for blacks, other minorities, and women.
separation: boycott, avoidance
exclusion: ostracism, boycott, avoidance
hindrance: boycott, avoidance
unsociability: ostracism, boycott, exclusion
disapprobation: ostracism, boycott, bar, color bar, ban, nonadmission, exclusion
IF ONE FICTIONAL FIGURE can be said to have dominated the popcult of the eighties, it was the Cop. Fuckin' police everywhere you turned, worse than real life. What an incredible bore.
Powerful Cops--protecting the meek and humble--at the expense of a half-dozen or so articles of the Bill of Rights- -"Dirty Harry." Nice human cops, coping with human perversity, coming out sweet 'n' sour, you know, gruff & knowing but still soft inside--Hill Street Blues--most evil TV show ever. Wiseass black cops scoring witty racist remarks against hick white cops, who nevertheless come to love each other--Eddie Murphy, Class Traitor. For that masochist thrill we got wicked bent cops who threaten to topple our Kozy Konsensus Reality from within like Giger- designed tapeworms, but naturally get blown away just in the nick of time by the Last Honest Cop, Robocop, ideal amalgam of prosthesis and sentimentality.
We've been obsessed with cops since the beginning--but the rozzers of yore played bumbling fools, _Keystone Kops_, _Car 54 Where Are You_, booby-bobbies set up for Fatty Arbuckle or Buster Keaton to squash & deflate. But in the ideal drama of the eighties, the "little man" who once scattered bluebottles by the hundred with that anarchist's bomb, innocently used to light a cigarette--the Tramp, the victim with the sudden power of the pure heart--no longer has a place at the center of narrative. Once "we" were that hobo, that quasi-surrealist chaote hero who wins thru wu- wei over the ludicrous minions of a despised & irrelevant Order. But now "we" are reduced to the status of victims without power, or else criminals. "We" no longer occupy that central role; no longer the heros of our own stories, we've been marginalized & replaced by the Other, the Cop.
Thus the Cop Show has only three characters--victim, criminal, and policeperson--but the first two fail to be fully human--only the pig is real. Oddly enough, human society in the eighties (as seen in the other media) sometimes appeared to consist of the same three cliche/archetypes. First the victims, the whining minorities bitching about "rights"--and who pray tell did not belong to a "minority" in the eighties? Shit, even cops complained about their "rights" being abused. Then the criminals: largely non-white (despite the obligatory & hallucinatory "integration" of the media), largely poor (or else obscenely rich, hence even more alien), largely perverse (i.e. the forbidden mirrors of "our" desires). I've heard that one out of four households in America is robbed every year, & that every year nearly half a million of us are arrested just for smoking pot. In the face of such statistics (even assuming they're "damned lies") one wonders who is NOT either victim or criminal in our police-state-of-consciousness. The fuzz must mediate for all of us, however fuzzy the interface-- they're only warrior-priests, however profane. _America's Most Wanted_--the most successful TV game show of the eighties--opened up for all of us the role of Amateur Cop, hitherto merely a media fantasy of middleclass resentment & revenge. Naturally the truelife Cop hates no one so much as the vigilante--look what happens to poor &/or non-white neighborhood self-protection groups like the Muslims who tried to eliminate crack dealing in Brooklyn: the cops busted the Muslims, the pushers went free. Real vigilantes threaten the monopoly of enforcement, lÉse majest, more abominable than incest or murder. But media(ted) vigilantes function perfectly within the CopState; in fact, it would be more accurate to think of them as unpaid (not even a set of matched luggage!) informers: telemetric snitches, electro-stoolies, ratfinks- for-a-day.
What is it that "America most wants"? Does this phrase refer to criminals--or to crimes, to objects of desire in their real presence, unrepresented, unmediated, literally stolen & appropriated? America most wants...to fuck off work, ditch the spouse, do drugs (because only drugs make you feel as good as the people in TV ads appear to be), have sex with nubile jailbait, sodomy, burglary, hell yes. What unmediated pleasures are NOT illegal? Even outdoor barbecues violate smoke ordinances nowadays. The simplest enjoyments turn us against some law; finally pleasure becomes too stress- inducing, and only TV remains--and the pleasure of revenge, vicarious betrayal, the sick thrill of the tattletale. America can't have what it most wants, so it has _America's Most Wanted_ instead. A nation of schoolyard toadies sucking up to an elite of schoolyard bullies.
Of course the program still suffers from a few strange reality-glitches: for example, the dramatized segments are enacted cinema verit style by actors; some viewers are so stupid they believe they're seeing actual footage of real crimes. Hence the actors are being continually harassed & even arrested, along with (or instead of) the real criminals whose mugshots are flashed after each little documentoid. How quaint, eh? No one really experiences anything--everyone reduced to the status of ghosts--media-images break off & float away from any contact with actual everyday life-- PhoneSex--CyberSex. Final transcendence of the body: cybergnosis.
The media cops, like televangelical forerunners,
prepare us for the advent, final coming or Rapture of the police state:
the "Wars" on sex and drugs: total control totally leached of all content;
a map with no coordinates in any known space; far beyond mere Spectacle;
("standing- outside-the-body"); obscene simulacrum; meaningless violent
to the last principle of governance. Image of a country consumed by images
of self-hatred, war between the schizoid
halves of a split personality, Super-Ego vs the Id Kid, for the heavyweight
championship of an abandoned landscape, burnt, polluted, empty, desolate,
unreal. Just as the murder-mystery is always an exercise in sadism, so
the cop-fiction always involves the contemplation of control. The image
of the inspector or detective measures the image of "our" lack of autonomous
substance, our transparency before the gaze of authority. Our perversity,
our helplessness. Whether we imagine them as "good" or "evil," our obsessive
invocation of the eidolons of the Cops reveals the extent to which we have
accepted the manichaean worldview they symbolize. Millions of tiny cops
swarm everywhere, like the qlippoth, larval hungry ghosts--they fill the
screen, as in Keaton's famous two-reeler, overwhelming
the foreground, an Antarctic where nothing moves but hordes of sinister blue penguins.
We propose an esoteric hermeneutical exegesis of the Surrealist slogan "Mort aux vaches!" We take it to refer not to the deaths of individual cops ("cows" in the argot of the period)--mere leftist revenge fantasy--petty reverse sadism--but rather to the death of the image of the flic, the inner Control & its myriad reflections in the NoPlace Place of the media--the "gray room" as Burroughs calls it. Self-censorship, fear of one's own desires, "conscience" as the interiorized voice of consensus- authority. To assassinate these "security forces" would indeed release floods of libidinal energy, but not the violent running-amok predicted by the theory of Law 'n' Order.
Nietzschean "self-overcoming" provides the principle of organization for the free spirit (as also for anarchist society, at least in theory). In the police-state personality, libidinal energy is dammed & diverted toward self-repression; any threat to Control results in spasms of violence. In the free-spirit personality, energy flows unimpeded & therefore turbulently but gently--its chaos finds its strange attractor, allowing new spontaneous orders to emerge.
In this sense, then, we call for a boycott of the image of the Cop, & a moratorium on its production in art. In this sense...
ronald laughs as millions starve
and profits forever increase
your stenching farts as they smile they say they try to please
plastic chairs and fake shakes to help it all go down
polluting your children with their lies and trying to destroy your mind
corporate deathburger, ronald mcdonald
change from your five ankles
deep in blood
make it your career sell billions every year
golden arches and ronald smiles
ronald laughs as billions starve
and profits forever increase
feeding all your grain to cows dead children rest in peace
the stench of humans rotting smells just like fish filet
your sign neglects to mention 50,000 starved today
change from your five torture
camps for cows
slaughter and starvation from death corporation
golden arches and ronald smiles
you say you're christian but
you're a fake
multinationals on the take
starving children deserve a break today
AOL Time Warner is one of the four remaining major label companies and owns Atlantic, Elektra/Sire, Asylum, Reprise, Warner, American, Maverick, EMI, and others. It also owns AOL, which is involved in a co-venture with Hughes Electronics Corp called DirecTV.
Hughes is owned 100% by General Motors. Hughes merged with Raytheon to form Hughes subsidiary Raytheon Industries. Raytheon Industries makes bombs.
Sony Corporaton is another of the major label companies.
Sony is involved in a co-venture with the US Army and University of Southern
California to develop
advanced training simulations for use by the Army. Sony's face in this venture is known as Future Combat Sytems.
BMG owns Arista, RCA, BMG and other record labels.
The Power Corporation of Canada is a significant shareholder in BMG, and
in turn has holdings in Pargesa
Group and Groupe Bruxelles Lambert. These holding companies own a stake in Totalfina, which owns an interest in the venture between Hutchinson Worldwide
and Barry Controls. This venture produces sundry parts used in fighter aircraft and other miltary vehicles.
Vivendi Universal is the fourth and final major label company, counting MCA, Polygram, Motown, Geffen-DGC, Interscope, and Universal among its holdings. It has an arm called Vivendi Environnement, which owns a stake in Fomento De Construcciones Y Contratas, which in turn has a stake in Espelsa. Espelsa works on mission planning systems for the P-3 Orion aircraft (Lockheed Martin), as well as systems for the Typhoon Fighter (or Eurofighter), made by British Aerospace. Espelsa also works with the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, which produces military aircarafts and bombs, as well as with Alenia who, together with Boeing, makes bombs.