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Great Pyramids of Giza
This nOde
last updated January 20th, 2004 and is permanently morphing...
(9 Ik (Wind) / 10 (Muan (Owl)
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pyramid (pîr´emîd) noun
1. a. A solid figure with a polygonal base and triangular
faces that meet at a common point. b. Something shaped like this polyhedron.
2. a. A massive monument of ancient Egypt
having a rectangular base and four triangular faces culminating in a single
apex, built over or around a crypt or tomb. b. Any of various similar constructions,
especially a foursided Mayan
temple having stepped sides and a flat top surmounted by ceremonial chambers.
3. The transactions involved in pyramiding stock.
4. Anatomy. A structure or part suggestive of a pyramid
in shape.
verb
pyramided, pyramiding, pyramids verb, transitive
1. To place or build in the shape of a pyramid.
2. To build (an argument or a thesis, for example)
progressively from a basic general premise.
verb, intransitive
1. To assume the shape of a pyramid.
2. To increase rapidly and on a widening base.
3. To pyramid stocks.
[Latin pýramis, pýramid, from Greek
puramis, probably from Egyptian pimar.]
 pyram´idal (pîràm´îdl)
or pyr´amid´ic (mîd´îk) or pyr´amid´ical
(îkel) adjective
 pyram´idally adverb
Giza (gê´ze)
A city of northern Egypt, an industrial suburb of Cairo
on the Nile River. The Great Pyramids and the Sphinx
are nearby. Population, 1,608,400.
Use of the pyramid inch is attributed to Sir Isaac Newton, who discovered that many of the measurements of the pyramid would be in whole numbers if this unit were used.
Some unorthodox theories as to what it was:
What it definitely is NOT: a tomb.
These extraordinary monuments, which make Stonehenge look like a morning's work, have inspired awe through the centuries. Their sheer size sets them apart, let alone the perfection of their geometry. Just how they were built remains a mystery; even today we would be hard pressed to replicate them with all the advantages of modern technology. At the time of the Ancient Egyptians there were no dumptrucks or cranes, no steel cables or hoists, not even iron tools. Without the benefit of so much as a simple pulley, they built mountains from stone and, with a precision that is truly astonishing, laid these out on the desert floor.
Yet the more puzzling question is why and not how they built them. Why did the Egyptians choose to build pyramids when, so far as we know, they had never been built before? Why did they build them so big and of such precision? Why did they scatter them around the desert instead of building them all in one place?
Contemporary Egyptology has no convincing answers. Pick up any textbook on the subject and you will encounter the same statement, that the pyramids functioned as royal tombs. But why, when a simple hole in the ground would have sufficed, should the Egyptians have built tombs up to 147 metres high? Why make this prodigious effort to house a dead body? Even given that the pharaohs were autocrats and were revered as living gods, this seems like a colossal waste of time and energy.
The popular image of gangs of slaves forced to
carry out this enormous task is also a myth; there is no evidence to suggest
that people were compelled to take part in this massive enterprise against
their wills  indeed, if anything, the opposite. The sheer quality of craftsmanship
in the construction of the pyramids suggests a pride in the work, and there
are subtleties of design which suggest ideals at odds with the brutal image
of Ancient Egypt portrayed in biblical film epics.
In fact, the Egyptians were highly civilised and
deeply religious at a time when Europeans were still primitive, and there
is much to suggest that they built pyramids more as an affirmation of their
religious convictions than to glorify dead pharaohs, however powerful.
But the Egyptians were also an extremely reserved people, who kept the
inner mysteries of their religion from all but a few chosen initiates.
As it was these few who directed the building of the pyramids, it is not
surprising that we know so little about their motives.
The Great Pyramid of Khufu, like the other pyramids, stands foursquare, but it is in all its detail the most perfect. The first exhaustive survey of the monument in modern times was carried out by Sir Flinders Petrie in i8802. He used the latest equipment of the time and approached his task with great thoroughness. He found that the sides of the pyramid were indeed lined up almost exactly with the cardinal points of the compass: north, south, east and west. (The accuracy of this alignment is incredible, with an average discrepancy of only about three minutes of arc in any direction; this is a variation of less than 0.06 per cent.) He also measured the sides of the base as being 23025 metres for the north side; 23044 metres for the south, 23038 for the east, and 23035 for the west. Thus, although no side is identical to any other, the difference between the longest and shortest is only nineteen centimetres, less than 0.08 per cent of the average length.
Such degrees of accuracy, both in orientation towards the cardinal points and in keeping the base square and the sloping side perfect, are little short of miraculous when you consider the size of the structure. Its perimeter is almost one kilometre, with an area of over 53,000 square metres, enough to fit into it the cathedrals of Florence, Milan and St Peters, as well as Westminster Abbey and St Paul's. It is indeed doubtful whether any of these later buildings exhibit the same accuracy as the Great Pyramid in their orientation or their structural execution. Although the pyramid contains several chambers, it is by no means a hollow building; it is mostly solid masonry and constructed from approximately 2.5 million limestone blocks. On average these weigh about 2.6 tons, to give a total mass of over 6.3 million tons.
We can simply marvel at the craftsmanship and technological abilities of these ancient builders, for they not only orientated their monument towards the four cardinal points and kept the plan square and the slopes true, but they cased its four sloping faces with finely polished white limestone from the quarries at Tura on the other side of the Nile. Judging by the few facing stones remaining at the foot of the north side of the pyramid, these were even larger than those used in the core of the building and weighed some fifteen tons each. They were set so closely together that the blade of a knife could not fit between them. The casingblocks were removed by the Arabs from the thirteenth century AD (some say to build the mosques of Cairo), but when intact the pyramid must have looked even more spectacular than it does today, glittering like a jewel in the sun light.
 Robert Bauval, Belgian Engineer, author of _The Orion Mystery_
The Golden Section
In the Great Pyramid the Egyptians produced a system of map projection even more sophisticated than the one incorporated in the ziggurats.
The apex of the Pyramid corresponds to the pole, the perimeter
to the equator, both in proper scale. This fact was inherent in Jomard's conclusions,
but got lost in the babble of cubits.
Each flat face of the Pyramid was designed to represent one curved quarter of the northern hemisphere, or spherical quadrant of 90 degrees.
To project a spherical quadrant onto a flat triangle correctly, the arc, or base, of the quadrant must be the same length as the base of the triangle, and both must have the same height. This happens to be the case only with a cross section or meridian bisection of the Great Pyramid, whose slope angle gives the pi relation between height and base.
John Taylor intuitively suspected something of the
sort, but was unable fully to formulate it.
The subtlety of the Pyramid's projection lies in
the fact that when viewed from the side, the laws of perspective reduce
the actual area of a face (mathematically oversized) to the correct size
for the projection, which is the Pyramid's cross section.
What the viewer saw, and sees, with the aid of perspective
is the correct triangle.
The key to the geometrical and mathematical secret
of the Pyramid, so long a puzzle
to mankind, was actually handed to Herodotus by the temple priests when
they informed him that the Pyramid was designed in such a way that the
area of each of its faces was equal to the square of its height.
This interesting observation reveals that the Pyramid was designed to incorporate not only the pi proportion but another and even more useful constant proportion, known in the Renaissance as the Golden Section, designated in modern times by the Greek letter phi, or 1.618.*
Phi, like pi, cannot be worked out arithmetically; but it can easily be obtained with nothing more than a compass and straightedge.
With the incorporation of the Golden Section, the Great Pyramid provides an effective system for translating spherical areas into flat ones.
* If the 356 cubits of the Pyramid's apothem are divided
by half the base, or 220 cubits, the result is 89/55, or 1.618.
 Peter tompkins  _Secrets Of The Great Pyramid_
If you take the line of longitude that the pyramid lies on, and the latitude that the pyramid lies on, 31 degrees north, by 31 degrees west (the fact that they are the same number is a coincidence, by the way (unless those aliens could predict the future (which isn't to unbelievable))) they are the two lines that cover the most combined land area in the world. (In essence, the pyramid is the center of all of the land mass of the whole earth.)
To date, archaeologists have located 98 pyramids in Egypt, all of which are located on the West Bank of the Nile. None on East side. The Giza Plateau has a fairly level granite bedrock base, in essence, a flat topped mountain. Other regions near the Great Pyramid could not have supported the immense weight of the structure.
There is so much stone mass in the pyramid that the interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature of the earth, 68 degrees Fahrenheit. The pyramid is estimated to have 2,300,000 stone blocks weighing from 230 tons each with some weighing as much as 70 tons.
The outer mantle was composed of 144,000 casing stones, all highly polished and flat to an accuracy of 1/100th of an inch, about 100 inches thick and weighing about 15 tons each with nearly perfect right angles for all six sides.
The casing stones weighing as much as 20 tons were placed with an accuracy of 5/1000ths of an inch, and an intentional gap of about 2/100ths of an inch for mortar.
Assuming 590,712 blocks and a build time of 20 years an average of 81 blocks per day would need to be placed. Using 10 work crews per side of the pyramid, each work crew would need to place 2 block per day.
The mortar used is of an unknown origin. It has been analyzed and it's chemical composition is known but it can't be reproduced. It is stronger than the stone and still holding up today.
The cornerstone foundations of the pyramid have ball and socket construction capable of dealing with heat expansion and earthquakes.
The four faces of the pyramid are slightly concave, the only pyramid to have been built this way.
The centers of the four sides are indented with an extraordinary degree of precision forming the only 8sided pyramid. The effect is not visible from the ground or from a distance but only from the air, and then only under the proper lighting conditions.
The granite coffer in the King's Chamber is too big to fit through the passages and so it must have been put in place during construction.
Microscopic analysis of the coffer reveals that it was made with a fixed point drill that used hard jewel bits and a drilling force of 2 tons.
The coffer was sawed out of a block of solid granite. This would have required bronze saws 89 ft. long set with teeth of sapphires. Hollowing out of the interior would require tubular drills of the same material applied with a tremendous vertical force.
There are no hieroglyphics or writings in the Great Pyramid. The only symbols are some graphics on the wall of the Room of Chaos.
Each of the ceiling stones in the Grand Gallery were individually removable. The Great Pyramid could have functioned as a stellar observatory during its construction.
In the King's Chamber all of the stone joints are very tight except in the lower lefthand corner of the west wall. Here the joints are larger than normal and covered by mortar. This is a strong indication of an opening to another chamber or passage. The Egyptian government has refused requests for further exploration.
In 1986 a French team using microgravimeter equipment detected small hidden cavities behind the west wall of the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber. They were permitted to bore a 1" diameter hole and found a cavity filled with sand. They were not permitted to dig or tunnel for further investigation.
The perimeter of the base divided by twice the height = Pi to 5 decimal places {9131*4/5813*2 = 3.141579+}
The relationship of Pi between the circumference and diameter of a circle was thought to have been first reported in 300 B.C. by the Greek mathematician Archimedes.
The perimeter of the north or south wall of the King's Chamber divided by the length of the wall = Pi {(230.38+5.0+412.12)*2 / 412.12 = 3.14}
Value of Phi:  The ratio of the apothem (face slant height) to half a base side = Phi (1.618). Phi is another transcendental number like Pi which has no exact value (approximate value = 1.6181818...). The unique properties of Phi are that phi +1 = phi squared and also 1 + 1/phi = phi. The Phi ratio is the basis for the Fibonacci sequence 1,1,2,3,5,8,13.,21,34... which was not generally publicized until 1200 A.D.
There is evidence that the Egyptians had worked out a relationship between Pi and Phi of: Pi = 6/5ths of (Phi)**2.
If the height of the pyramid is taken as the radius of a circle, then the circumference of this circle is the same as the perimeter of the base. This provided the complimentary squaring of a circle and circling of a square. The key to this relationship is knowledge of the value of Pi and designing the angle of the pyramid to be exactly 51 degrees, 51 minutes, and 14.3 seconds.
The Pythagorean relationship represented by a 345 right triangle is displayed in the dimensions of the King's Chamber. The east wall diagonal is 309", the length is 412", and the long central diagonal is 515". However, the Pythagorean relation was not identified until 497 B.C. In the King's Chamber, the stone over the entrance is the only stone in the walls that is two courses high. It represents a 345 Pythagorean relationship by its measure of 124"L x 93"H x 155" diagonal.
With the mantle in place, the Great Pyramid could be seen from the mountains in Israel and probably the moon as well. It's polished surfaces would have reflected light like a beacon.

Mean Earth Temperature: The average temperature of Egypt equals the average temperature of earth = avg. temperature of Queen's Chamber = 68 degrees Fahrenheit.
With the original surrounding courtyards and temples in place, the pyramid was used as a sundial.
The pyramid was used to indicate solstices and equinoxes. Due to the angle of the sides of the pyramid vs. it's latitude, it casts no shadow at noon during the spring equinox.
The Great Pyramid is the most accurately aligned structure in existence and faces true north with only 3/60th of a degree of error. The position of the North Pole moves over time and the pyramid was probably exactly aligned at one time.
The Great Pyramid is located at the center of the land mass of the earth. The east/west parallel that crosses the most land and the north/south meridian that crosses the most land intersect in two places on the earth, one in the ocean and the other at the Great Pyramid.
The length of a base side is 9131 pyramid inches measured at the mean socket level, or 365.24 pyramid cubits, which is the number of days in a year. {9131/25 = 365.24, accurate to 5 digits}
The perimeter of the base divided by 100 = 365.24, the number of days in a year. {9131 PI * 4 / 100, accurate to 5 digits}
The length of the Antechamber used as the diameter of a circle produces a circumference of 365.242. {accurate to 6 digits}
The length of the granite portion of the floor of the antechamber to the King's Chamber times 2*sqrt(Pi) = 365.242
The average height of land above sea level for the earth is 5449 inches. This is also the height of the pyramid.
The pyramid suggests a temperature system: 0 = freezing point of water, 50 = unvarying temp of Queen's Chamber, 250 = boiling point of water. Given this, then1000 = temp of red hot iron, 4000 = temp that iron liquifies, and 5000 = temp of white heat and temp that platinum fuses. Nice round numbers.
On midnight of the autumnal equinox in the year of the Great Pyramid's completion, a line extending from the apex pointed to the star Alcyone. Our solar system is thought by some to revolve around this star along with other solar systems much like the planets revolve around our sun.
The pyramid positions on the ground are a reflection of
the positions of the stars in the constellation Orion
circa 10,400 B.C. Five of the 7 brightest stars have pyramid equivalents: The
3 great pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura for the belt of Orion, the pyramid
of Nebka at Abu Rawash corresponds to the star Saiph, the pyramid at Zawat al
Aryan corresponds to the star Bellatrix. The only two missing star positions
are for Betelgeuse and Rigel.
The height of the Great Pyramid, minus the height of the capstone represents one millionth the time it takes light to travel the mean radius of the earth's orbit around the sun (1 astronomical unit) using 1 pyramid inch equals 24 hours (mean solar day). {(5813.2355653  103.0369176) / 10**6 = .0057101986+ days = 493.36116 seconds = 8 minutes, 13.36 seconds }
The word "pyramid" is from the Coptic "pyr" meaning division, and "met", meaning ten, "the division of ten".
The pyramid is the only remaining structure of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
The polished surfaces of the original mantle reflected heat, sunlight, and moonlight and was probably used as to aid Nile river navigation at night.
No mummy has ever been found in a pyramid in Egypt. Mummies have always come from mastabas or tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
Initially, after the 5 chambers above the King's
Chamber were opened, those that entered the 2nd chamber were turned black
by a powder which existed only in that chamber. It was analyzed and determined
to be the dust from the cast off shells and skins of insects.
release _Being Boiled/Circus Of Death_ 7" by The Human League on Fast Records (1978)
First lady Dolly Madison held the first Easter egg rolling contest at the White House in 1810. Mrs. Madison was fascinated to learn that Egyptian children rolled colored eggs on the site of the Pyramids. She thought the children of the Washington area would enjoy this enchanting activity.
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