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Sumer and Sumerian civilization. A notable non-Semitic culture appeared in S Mesopotamia (Sumer) at least as early as the 5th millennium B.C. By 3000 B.C. Sumerian city-states, e.g., Erech, Kish, Lagash, and UR, developed considerable power based on irrigated agriculture. Pottery and metalwork were made into fine arts, and the Sumerians probably invented CUNEIFORM writing. The Sumerians were the rivals of Semitic cities such as AKKAD and ultimately were conquered by them. A Sumerian revival under the third dynasty of Ur (c.2060 B.C.) lasted until that dynasty fell to ELAM, and the growth of BABYLONIA ended the Sumerians as a nation.
An ancient country of southern Mesopotamia in present-day southern Iraq. Archaeological evidence dates the beginnings of Sumer to the fifth millennium B.C. By 3000 a flourishing civilization existed, which gradually exerted power over the surrounding area and culminated in the Akkadian dynasty founded (c. 2340) by Sargon I. Sumer declined after 2000 and was later absorbed by Babylonia and Assyria. The Sumerians are believed to have invented the cuneiform system of writing.
Literature, 3000 B.C.E.
Gilgamesh in Sumerian cuneiform is the first known written legend and tells of a great flood in which man was saved by building an ark.
The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer instrument on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum (a separation of light into its component colors, or wavelengths) over a large area of the solar north polar region. By analyzing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition and motion.
Today's physicists enjoy speculating about Theories of Everything, but they really don't mean everything. They just mean physics and cosmology. Some 5,000 years ago, the Sumerians constructed a remarkable Theory of Everything based upon music, a base-60 number system, and symmetry concepts. These Sumerians didn't have supercomputers but they were able to incorporate into their theory much more than physics and cosmology. Below, E.G. McClain provides some insight into ancient Sumerian thinking:
"In ancient Mesopotania,
music, mathematics, art, science, religion, and poetic fantasy
were fused. Around 3000 B.C., the Sumerians simultaneously developed cuneiform
writing, in which they recorded their pantheon, and a base-60 number system. Their
gods were assigned numbers that encoded the primary ratios of music, with the gods'
functions corresponding to their numbers in acoustical theory. Thus the Sumerians
created an extensive tonal/arithmetical model for the cosmos. In this far-reaching
allegory, the physical world is known by analogy, and the gods give divinity not only to
natural forces but also to a 'supernatural,' intuitive understanding of mathematical
patterns and psychological forces."
To understand the role of musical theory in modeling the cosmos, one must realize that it involves: "the definition of intervals, the distance between pitches, by ratios of integers or counting numbers." For the ancient Sumerians music was a tool that helped them describe the cosmos.
(McClain, Ernest G.; "Musical
Theory and Ancient Cosmology," The World and I, p. 371,
February 1994. Cr. L. Ellenberger)
book _The Sacred Mushroom
and the Cross_ by John M. Allegro. A dense work of etymology tracing the roots
of Christianity back to Sumerian fertility cults,
with particular focus
on the possible central position of psychedelic
mushrooms in mystery rites among early Christians. Valuable analysis of the
sexual connotations of mushroommorphology,
and of encrypted mushroom-related information
in the New Testament. Allegro was one of the original Dead Sea Scrolls scholars.
"...Man and his early civilizations had a profoundly different mentality from our own, that in fact men and women were not conscious as are we, were not responsible for their actions, and therefore cannot be given the credit or blame for anything that was done over these vast millennia of time; that instead each person had a part of his nervous system that was divine, by which he was ordered about like any slave, a voice or voices which indeed were what we call volition and empowered what they commanded and were related to the hallucinated voices of others in a carefully established hierarchy."
"...The astonishing consistency from Egypt to Peru, from Ur to Yucatan, wherever civilizations arose, of death practices and idolatry, of divine government and hallucinated voices, all are witness to the idea of a different mentality than our own."
"The gods were in no sense
'figments of the imagination'
of anyone. They were man's volition. They occupied his nervous
system, probably his right hemisphere, and from stores of admonitory
and receptive experience, transmuted this experience into articulated speech
which then 'told' the man what to do."
"Throughout Mesopotamia, from the earliest times of Sumer and Akkad, all lands were owned by gods and men were their slaves. Of this, the cuneiform texts leave no doubt whatever. Each city-state had its own principal god, and the king was described in the very earliest written documents that we have as 'the tenant farmer of the god'."
- Julian Jaynes - _The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind_
Parallels Between The Hopi
& Sumerian Cultures
by Robert Morningsky
The oldest know breed of domesticated dog is the saluki. Carvings of animals resembling the saluki have been found in excavations of the Sumerian Empire believed to date from between 6000 and 7000 B.C.
Sumerian pictographs carvings have depictions similar to the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.