A trademark used for a photocopying process or machine employing xerography. This trademark often occurs in print in uppercase or lowercase as a verb, an adjective, and a noun: "Juicy stories circulated . . . in a book proposal that was Xeroxed and read as an alternate beach book in the Hamptons" (Washington Post). "Letters you send should be xeroxed after you sign them" (Progressive Architecture). "To walk around the . . . campus during the strike was to be confronted with their fact sheets, their xeroxed research summaries and news clips" (San Francisco Chronicle). "The group's teacher . . . asked the children how they would feel if they received a Xeroxed thank-you card" (New York Times). "He reaches inside his windbreaker to his shirt pocket. He has four or five sheets of foolscap, xeroxes, I see, of court documents" (Scott Turow). The trademark sometimes occurs in print in figurative contexts: "Her performance was Xeroxed from her imagination" (Chicago Tribune). "And of course sequels are nothing new: Andy Hardy and Nick Charles, for instance, were Xeroxed shamelessly in earlier days" (Boston Globe).
imitator: duplicator, copier,
photocopier, Xerox™, mimeograph, pantograph, stencil
copy: photocopy, Xerox™, photograph, photogravure, Photostat™, positive, negative, copy negative, contact print, photography
duplication: copy, carbon copy, replica, photocopy, Xerox™, duplicate
record: copy, spare copy, carbon copy, Xerox™, facsimile, fax, duplicate
recording instrument: camera, photocopier, Xerox™
representation: reproduction, copy, Xerox™, lithograph, collotype, printing
photography: photocopy, Xerox™, copy
Xerox PARC (zêr`oks pärk', P-A-R-C')
Short for Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. Xerox's research and development facility in Palo Alto, California. Xerox PARC is the birthplace of such innovations as the local area network (LAN), the laser printer, and the graphical user interface (GUI).
Carlson, Chester F.
Carlson, Chester F. (1906-1968),
American physicist and inventor, born in Seattle, Washington. Educated
at the California Institute of Technology, Carlson in 1934 began to experiment
with electrostatics to make copies of printed material. In 1938 he produced
the first electrostatic (or Xerox) copy. He received his first patent in
1940. The first commercial rights to Xerox were purchased in 1947
by the Haloid Company. Later named Xerox Corporation, the company launched
a photocopying revolution with the 1958 introduction of the Xerox office
Apple Computer is founded in a California garage to produce personal computers. Founders Stephen G. Wozniak, 26, and Steven Jobs, 21, are college dropouts who have raised $l,500 and spent 6 months designing the crude prototype for Apple I, using information picked up from visits to Xerox technologists at Palo Alto.
Communications and Media, 1946
Xerography wins support from the Rochester, N.Y.,
firm Haloid Co. whose research director John H. Dessauer has seen an article
on "electrophotography" by Chester Carlson in a July 1944 issue of Radio
News. Dessauer and his boss, Joseph C. Wilson, 36, travel to Columbus,
Ohio, and see experiments conducted by the Batelle Memorial Institute,
Haloid invests $10,000 to acquire production rights, and within 6 years
the firm will raise more than $3.5 million to develop what will be called
the Xerox copier.
The real trick was in preserving the image. Carlson took wax paper and heated it over the remaining powder. The wax cooled around the spores and was then peeled away. Yes, the first photocopy (if you consider the spores of a fungus to be a copy) had been made.
At the same time, Haloid came up with a better
name for the process. Somehow the name electro-photography was not very
catchy. An Ohio State professor suggested xerography from the Greek
words xeros for "dry" and graphos for "writing". Haloid named its
first photocopier the XeroX Model A, the last X being added to make
the name similar to that of Kodak, another Rochester corporation.
In 1958, Haloid officially changed their name to Haloid Xerox,
and finally to just plain old Xerox in 1961. Of course, all good things
must come to an end. Chester Carlson, finally enjoying the profits
from his years of hard work, collapsed and died on September 19,
1968 while walking down 57th Street in New York City. He had been attending
a conference and was on his way to see a movie during some spare time.
Of the estimated $150 million dollars he had earned from Xerox, he had
generously given about $100 million to charity.
- Jean Baudrillard, _Xerox & Infinity_.
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